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Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Summary Chart
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson described development that occurs throughout the lifespan. Learn more in this chart summarizing Erikson's stages of psychosocial development.

Stage Basic Conflict Important Events Outcome
Infancy (birth to 18 months) Trust vs. Mistrust Feeding Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
Early Childhood (2 to 3 years) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toilet Training Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
Preschool (3 to 5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
School Age (6 to 11 years) Industry vs. Inferiority School Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
Adolescence (12 to 18 years) Identity vs. Role Confusion Social Relationships Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Intimacy vs. Isolation Relationships Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years) Generativity vs. Stagnation Work and Parenthood Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
Maturity(65 to death) Ego Integrity vs. Despair Reflection on Life Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.

More Resources:

Learn more about psychosocial theories and Erik Erikson in the following articles:

  • Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
    Learn more about Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development. According to Erikson, each stage plays a major role in the development of personality and psychological skills.

  • Biography of Erik Erikson
    Erik Erikson's stage theory of psychosocial development contributed to our understanding of personality development throughout the lifespan. Learn more about his life, career, and how early experiences led to his interest in identity

Learn more about other theories of personality in the following articles:

  • Psychosexual Development
    Freud's stages of psychosexual development is on of the best known personality theories, but also one of the most controversial. Learn more about the psychosexual stages of development.

  • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs emphasizes the importance of self-actualization and is often pictured as a pyramid. Learn more about the five levels in Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

  • Personality Psychology Study Guide
    Personality psychology seeks to understand and describe the development of personality. This study guide offers an overview, timeline, theories, important figures, and study questions about personality.

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