Behavior Analysis Defined
According to Division 25, the fact that behavior analysis focuses on behavior as a subject makes it unique. The division also explains that this analysis of behavior can occur in three different ways.
- First, through the experimental investigation of behavior.
- Secondly, through applied behavior analysis. This process involves taking what researchers know about behavior and applying it in individual, social, and cultural contexts.
- Finally, through the conceptual analysis of behavior. According to Division 25, this address the philosophical, historical, theoretical and methodological issues in behavior analysis.
Experimental and Applied Behavior Analysis
There are two major areas of behavior analysis: experimental and applied. Experimental behavior analysis involves basic research designed to add to the body of knowledge about behavior. Applied behavior analysis, on the other hand, is focused on applying these behavior principles to real-world situations. Those who work in the field of applied behavior analysis are interested in behaviors and their relationship with the environment. Rather than focusing on internal states, ABA therapists focus on observable behaviors and utilize behavioral techniques to bring about behavioral change.
According to the Behavior Analyst Certification Board:
"Professionals in applied behavior analysis engage in the specific and comprehensive use of principles of learning, including operant and respondent learning, in order to address behavioral needs of widely varying individuals in diverse settings. Examples of these applications include: building the skills and achievements of children in school settings; enhancing the development, abilities, and choices of children and adults with different kinds of disabilities; and augmenting the performance and satisfaction of employees in organizations and businesses."
History of Behavior Analysis
Behaviorism was largely established through the influential work of three theorists:
Pavlov discovered the conditioning reflex during his studies with dogs, establishing classical conditioning as a learning method. His research demonstrated that an environmental stimulus (i.e. ringing bell) could be used to stimulate a conditioned response (i.e. salivating at the sound of the ringing bell).
John B. Watson extended Pavlov's theory to apply to human behavior, publishing his landmark article Psychology as the Behaviorist View It in 1913 and establishing behaviorism as a major school of thought.
B.F. Skinner later introduced the concept of operant conditioning in which reinforcement leads to a desired behavior. These concepts continue to play influential roles in behavior analysis, behavior modification, and psychotherapy.
Behaviorism was once a very prominent school of thought within psychology, although its dominance began to decline during the 1950s as psychologists became more interested in humanistic and cognitive approaches. However, behavioral techniques are still widely used today in psychotherapy, counseling, education, and even in parenting.
Techniques and Strategies Used In Behavior Analysis
Some of the techniques used by behavior analysts include:
- Chaining: This behavior techniques involves breaking a task down into smaller components. The simplest or first task in the process is taught first. Once that task has been learned, the next task can be taught. This continues until the entire sequence is successfully chained together.
- Prompting: This approach involves using some type of prompt to trigger a desired response. This might involve issues a verbal cue, such as telling the person what to do, or a visual cue, such as displaying a picture designed to cue the response.
- Shaping: This strategy involves gradually altering a behavior, rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
Applications of Behavior Analysis
Behavior analysis has proven to be a particularly effective learning tool for helping children with autism or developmental delays acquire and maintain new skills. These treatments include the Lovaas Method and ABA (applied behavior analysis) and utilize techniques such as discrete trial training. The basic principles of behavior medication are often adapted for use in educational settings, the workplace and childcare.