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Structure of a Neuron

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Axon
The axon transmits information away from the cell body.
Image: Kendra Cherry

The axon is the elongated fiber that extends from the cell body to the terminal endings and transmits the neural signal. The larger the axon, the faster it transmits information. Some axons are covered with a fatty substance called myelin that acts as an insulator. These myelinated axons transmit information much faster than other neurons.

Axon Characteristics

  • Most neurons have only one axon
  • Transmit information away from the cell body
  • May or may not have a myelin covering

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