As the name suggests, experiential learning involves learning from experience. The theory was proposed by psychologist David Kolb who was influenced by the work of other theorists including John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Jean Piaget. According to Kolb, this type of learning can be defined as "the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combinations of grasping and transforming experience."
Experiential learning theory differs from cognitive and behavioral theories in that cognitive theories emphasize the role of mental processes while behavioral theories ignore the possible role of subjective experience in the learning process. The experiential theory proposed by Kolb takes a more holistic approach and emphasizes how experiences, including cognitions, environmental factors, and emotions influence the learning process.
An Overview of Experiential Theory
In the experiential model, Kolb described two different ways of grasping experience: Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization. He also identified two ways of transforming experience: Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. These four modes of learning are often portrayed as a cycle.
According to Kolb, concrete experience provides the information that serves as a basis for reflection. From these reflections, we assimilate the information and form abstract concepts. We then use these concepts to develop new theories about the world, which we then actively test. Through the testing of our ideas, we once again gather information through experience, cycling back to the beginning of the process. The process does not necessarily begin with experience, however. Instead, each person must choose which learning mode will work best based upon the specific situation.
For example, let's imagine that you are going to learn how to drive a car. Some people might choose to begin learning via reflection by observing other people as they drive. Another person might prefer to start more abstractly, by reading and analyzing a driving instruction book. Yet another person might decide to just jump right in and get behind the seat of a car to practice driving on a test course.
How do we decide which mode of experiential learning will work best? While situational variables are important, our own preferences play a large role. Kolb notes that people who are considered "watchers" prefer reflective observation, while those who are "doers" are more likely to engage in active experimentation. "Because of our hereditary equipment, our particular past life experiences, and the demands of our environment, we develop a preferred way of choosing," Kolb explains. These preferences also serve as the basis for Kolb's learning styles. In this learning style model, each of the four types has dominant learning abilities in two areas. For example, people with the Diverging learning style are dominant in the areas of concrete experience and reflective observation.
Kolb suggests that a number of different factors can influence preferred learning styles. Some of the factors that he has identified include:
- Personality type
- Educational specialization
- Career choice
- Current job role
- Adaptive competencies
Support and Criticism
While Kolb's theory is one of the widely used learning models in the field of education, it has been widely criticized for a number of reasons.
- Kolb's own research suggests that there is a correlation between students learning styles and their chosen majors. People who choose college majors and professions that are well-aligned to their learning styles tend to be more committed to their field.
- Experiential learning can be good for helping people explore their own strengths when learning new things.
- The theory addresses how learners can play to their own strengths as well as developing areas in which they are weakest.
- The theory does not adequately address the role than non-reflective experience plays in the learning process.
- While the theory is good at analyzing how learning occurs for individuals, it does little to look at learning that occurs in larger social groups. How does the individuals interaction with a larger group impact the experiential learning process?
- Learning styles may not be stable over time. For example, one study has found that adults over the age of 65 tend to become more observant and reflective while learning.
- Other critics suggest that the theory is too narrowly focused and restrictive.
Kolb, D. A., Boyatzis, R. E., & Mainemelis, C. (2000). Experiential Learning Theory: Previous Research and New Directions. In Perspectives on cognitive, learning, and thinking styles. Sternberg & Zhang (Eds.). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Miettinen, R. (2000). The concept of experiential learning and John Dewey's theory of reflective thought and action. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 19(1), 54-72.
Truluck, J. E., & Courtenay, B. C. (1999). Learning style preferences among older adults. Educational Gerontology, 25(3), 221-236.