Personality is something that we informally assess and describe every day. When we talk about ourselves and others, we frequently refer to different characteristics of an individual's personality. Psychologists do much the same thing when they assess personality, but on a much more systematic and scientific level.
Personality testing refers to techniques that are used to accurately and consistently measure personality.
How are personality tests used?
- For assessing theories
- To look at changes in personality
- To evaluate the effectiveness of therapy
- Diagnosing psychological problems
- Screening job candidates
Types of Personality Assessment
There are two basic types of personality tests: self-report inventories and projective tests.
- Self-report inventories involve having test-takers read questions and then rate how well the question or statement applies to them. One of the most common self-report inventories is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, or MMPI.
- Projective tests involve presenting the test-taker with a vague scene, object, or scenario and then asking them to give their interpretation of the test item. One well-known example of a projective test is the Rorschach Inkblot Test.
Potential Problems with Personality Testing
Each of these approaches has its own unique set of strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. The greatest benefit of self-report inventories is that they can be standardized and use established norms. They are also relatively easy to administer and have much higher reliability and validity than projective tests.
One of the biggest disadvantages of self-report inventories is that it is possible for people to engage in deception when answering questions. Even though techniques can be used to detect deception, people can still successfully provide false answers often in an effort to "fake good" or appear more socially acceptable and desirable.
Another potential problem is that people are not always good at accurately describing their own behavior. People tend to overestimate certain tendencies (especially ones that are viewed as socially desirable) while underestimating other characteristics. This can have a serious impact on the accuracy of a personality test.
Self-report personality tests can also be quite long, in some cases taking several hours to complete. Not surprisingly, respondents can quickly become bored and frustrated. When this happens, test-takers will often answer questions as quickly as possible, often without even reading the test items.
Projective tests are most often used in psychotherapy settings and allow therapists to quickly gather a great deal of information about a client. For example, a therapist can look not only at the client's response to a particular test item; they can also take into account other qualitative information such as the client's tone of voice and body language. All of this can be explored in greater depth as the client progresses though therapy sessions.
However, projective tests also have a number of disadvantages and limitations. The first problem lies in the interpretation of the responses. Scoring test items is highly subjective and different raters might provide entirely different viewpoints of the responses.
These tests also tend to lack both reliability and validity. Remember, reliability refers to the consistency of a test while validity involves whether the test is really measuring what it claims to measure.
Personality Testing: Scientific vs. Entertaining
As you start looking at all of the different personality assessments that are available, you will probably notice one thing quite quickly: there are a lot of "informal" tests out there! Just a simple online search will turn up an enormous range of quizzes and tests designed to tell you something about your personality.
Let's make one thing clear – the vast majority of these quizzes that you'll encounter online are just for fun. They can be entertaining and they might even give you a little insight into your personality, but they are in no way formal, scientific assessments of personality.
Examples of Personality Tests
The following are just a few examples of some "just for fun" personality tests.