Characteristics of the Formal Operational Stage:
Observations About the Formal Operational Stage:
- "The formal operational thinker has the ability to consider many different solutions to a problem before acting. This greatly increases efficiency, because the individual can avoid potentially unsuccessful attempts at solving a problem. The formal operational person considers past experiences, present demands, and future consequences in attempting to maximize the success of his or her adaptation to the world."
- "In the formal operational stage, actual (concrete) objects are no longer required and mental operations can be undertaken 'in the head' using abstract terms. For example, children at this stage can answer questions such as: 'if you can imagine something made up of two quantities, and the whole thing remains the same when one quantity is increased, what happens to the second quantity?' This type of reasoning can be done without thinking about actual objects."
(Brain & Mukherji, 2005)
More From This Series:
Brain, C., & Mukherji, P. (2005). Understanding child psychology. United Kingdom: Nelson Thornes.
Piaget, J. (1977). Gruber, H.E.; Voneche, J.J. eds. The essential Piaget. New York: Basic Books.
Piaget, J. (1983). Piaget's theory. In P. Mussen (ed). Handbook of Child Psychology. 4th edition. Vol. 1. New York: Wiley.
Salkind, N. J. (2004). An introduction to theories of human development. Thousand oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Santrock, John W. (2008). A topical approach to life-span development (4 ed.). New York City: McGraw-Hill.