Psychoanalytic therapy is one of the most well-known treatment modalities, but it is also one of the most misunderstood by mental health consumers. This type of therapy is based upon the theories and work of Sigmund Freud, who founded the school of thought known as psychoanalysis.
What Is Psychoanalytic Therapy?
Psychoanalytic therapy looks at how the unconscious mind influences thoughts and behaviors. Psychoanalysis frequently involves looking at early childhood experiences in order to discover how these events might have shaped the individual and how they contribute to current actions. People undergoing psychoanalytic therapy often meet with their therapist at least once a week and may remain in therapy for a number of weeks, months, or years.
The History of Psychoanalytic Therapy
Psychoanalytic theory grew out of the work of the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud who began developing his therapeutic techniques in the late 1800s. In 1885, Freud began to study and work with Jean-Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière in Paris. Charcot used hypnosis to treat women suffering from what was then known as hysteria. Symptoms of the illness included partial paralysis, hallucinations, and nervousness.
Freud continued to research hypnotism in treatment, but his work and friendship with colleague Josef Breuer led to the development of his most famous therapeutic technique. Breuer desribed his treatment of a young woman, known in the case history as Anna O., whose symptoms of hysteria were relieved by talking about her traumatic experiences. Freud and Breuer collaborated on a book called Studies on Hysteria and Freud continued to develop his use of this "talk therapy."
How Does Psychoanalytic Therapy Work?
Psychoanalytic therapists generally spend time listening to patients talk about their lives, which is why this method is often referred to as "the talking cure." The therapy provider will look for patterns or significant events that may play a role in the client's current difficulties. Psychoanalysts believe that childhood events and unconscious feelings, thoughts, and motivations play a role in mental illness and maladaptive behaviors.
Psychoanalytic therapy also makes use of other techniques including free association, role play, and dream interpretation.
What Are the Benefits of Psychoanalytic Therapy?
While this type of therapy has many critics who claim that psychoanalytic therapy is too time-consuming, expensive, and generally ineffective, this treatment has several benefits as well. The therapist offers an empathetic and nonjudgmental environment where the client can feel safe in revealing feelings or actions that have led to stress or tension in his or her life. Oftentimes, simply sharing these burdens with another person can have a beneficial influence.
What Are the Downsides to Psychoanalytic Therapy?
Costs are often cited as the biggest downside of psychoanalytic therapy. Many clients are in therapy for years, so the financial and time costs associated with this treatment modality can be very high.
Critics also point out that the effectiveness of psychoanalytic therapy can also be questioned. One study found that there was no difference in therapy outcomes between psychoanalytic therapy clients and a placebo group. Other critics including Noam Chomsky and Karl Popper suggest that psychoanalysis lacks scientific basis.
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American Psychoanalytic Association. (n.d.). About Psychoanalysis. Found online at http://depression.about.com/od/psychotherapy/a/psychoanalytic.htm
Eysenk, H. J. (1952). The Effects of Psychotherapy: An Evaluation. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16, 319-324.
Grubin, D. (2002). Young Dr. Freud: A film by David Grubin. Devillier Donegan Enterprises.
Solomon, D. (2003). The Professorial Provocateur. The New York Times. Found online at http://www.chomsky.info/interviews/20031102.htm