Dreams have fascinated artists, philosophers and researchers for thousands of years. However, it was not until fairly recently in history that dreams became the subject of serious scientific study. While dreams can vary considerably, sleep researcher J. Allan Hobson (1988) identified five basic characteristics of dreams:
1. Dreams Often Feature Intense EmotionsOne of the major characteristics of dreams is that the emotions experienced in dreams can be intense, painful and acute. People commonly report dreaming about deeply embarrassing situations (i.e. being nude in public) or profoundly terrifying events (i.e. being chased by an attacker). In some instances, these emotions can become so intense that they interrupt the dream or cause the dreamer to wake abruptly. The three most common emotions that become intensified by dreams are anxiety, fear and surprise (Hobson, 7).
2. Dreams Are Frequently Disorganized and IllogicalDreams are full of discontinuities, ambiguities and inconsistency, but sometimes these things can lead to downright bizarre dream content. According to Hobson (4), one of the hallmarks of dreams is "illogical content and organization, in which the unities of time, place and person do not apply, and natural laws are disobeyed." Some examples of illogical dream content includes flying, time travel, talking animals, sudden transformations of both people and objects and sudden shifts in setting.
3. Strange Dream Content Is Accepted Without QuestionThe odd events and content that occur in dreams are typically accepted without question by the dreaming mind. According to Hobson, the unquestioning acceptance of dream content is due to the strength of our internally generated emotions and perceptions ("Dreaming," 5). Within the dream, these strange and illogical events, perceptions and objects are not seen as being out of place. If the dream is remembered upon waking, the content of the dream is seen as odd or even difficult to explain.
4. People Often Experience Bizarre SensationsStrange sensory experiences are another cardinal characteristic of dreams. The sensation of falling, an inability to move quickly and being unable to control body movements are just a few of the commonly reported sensory experiences that occur during dreams.
5. Dreams Are Difficult to RememberWhile memory seems to be intensified within the context of the dream, access to the information contained within the dream diminishes rapidly once the dreamer wakes. Dream researchers estimate that approximately 95% of all dreams are forgotten entirely upon awakening.
Understanding the Characteristics of DreamsWhile many people may familiar with these five common characteristics of dreams, some may be unaware of just how common these experiences are. "Dream characteristics and dream object may be of an everyday nature or altogether fantastic and impossible collages of existing reality; they may behave normally or indulge in the most absurd, improbable or impossible actions in settings either familiar or bearing only the faintest resemblances to those of real life," Hobson explains (6).