Psychoanalytic theorist Karen Horney
developed one of the best known theories of neurosis. She believed that neurosis resulted from basic anxiety caused by interpersonal relationships. Her theory proposes that strategies used to cope with anxiety can be overused, causing them to take on the appearance of needs.
According to Horney, basic anxiety (and therefore neurosis) could result from a variety of things including, " . . . direct or indirect domination, indifference, erratic behavior, lack of respect for the child's individual needs, lack of real guidance, disparaging attitudes, too much admiration or the absence of it, lack of reliable warmth, having to take sides in parental disagreements, too much or too little responsibility, over-protection, isolation from other children, injustice, discrimination, unkept promises, hostile atmosphere, and so on and so on" (Horney, 1945).
These 10 neurotic needs can be classed into three broad categories:
- Needs that move you towards others.
These neurotic needs cause individuals to seek affirmation and acceptance from others and are often described as needy or clingy as they seek out approval and love.
- Needs that move you away from others.
These neurotic needs create hostility and antisocial behavior. These individuals are often described as cold, indifferent, and aloof.
- Needs that move you against others.
These neurotic needs result in hostility and a need to control other people. These individuals are often described as difficult, domineering, and unkind.
Well-adjusted individuals utilize all three of these strategies, shifting focus depending on internal and external factors. So what is it that makes these coping strategies neurotic? According to Horney, it is the overuse of one or more of these interpersonal styles. Neurotic people tend to utilize two or more of these ways of coping, creating conflict, turmoil, and confusion.
In her book Self-Analysis
(1942), Horney outlined the 10 neurotic needs she had identified:
1. The Neurotic Need for Affection and Approval
This needs include the desires to be liked, to please other people, and meet the expectations of others. People with this type of need are extremely sensitive to rejection and criticism and fear the anger or hostility of others.
2. The Neurotic Need for a Partner Who Will Take Over Ones Life
These involve the need to be centered on a partner. People with this need suffer extreme fear of being abandoned by their partner. Oftentimes, these individuals place an exaggerated importance on love and believe that having a partner will resolve all of lifes troubles.
3. The Neurotic Need to Restrict Ones Life Within Narrow Borders
Individuals with this need prefer to remain inconspicuous and unnoticed. They are undemanding and content with little. They avoid wishing for material things, often making their own needs secondary and undervaluing their own talents and abilities.
4. The Neurotic Need for Power
Individuals with this need seek power for its own sake. They usually praise strength, despise weakness, and will exploit or dominate other people. These people fear personal limitations, helplessness, and uncontrollable situations.
5. The Neurotic Need to Exploit Others
These individuals view others in terms of what can be gained through association with them. People with this need generally pride themselves in their ability to exploit other people and are often focused on manipulating others to obtain desired objectives, including such things as ideas, power, money, or sex.
6. The Neurotic Need for Prestige
Individuals with a need for prestige value themselves in terms of public recognition and acclaim. Material possessions, personality characteristics, professional accomplishments, and loved ones are evaluated based upon prestige value. These individuals often fear public embarrassment and loss of social status.
7. The Neurotic Need for Personal Admiration
Individuals with a neurotic need for personal admiration are narcissistic and have an exaggerated self-perception. They want to be admired based on this imagined self-view, not upon how they really are.
8. The Neurotic Need for Personal Achievement
According to Horney, people push themselves to achieve greater and greater things as a result of basic insecurity. These individuals fear failure and feel a constant need to accomplish more than other people and to top even their own earlier successes.
9. The Neurotic Need for Self-Sufficiency and Independence
These individuals exhibit a loner mentality, distancing themselves from others in order to avoid being tied down or dependent upon other people.
10. The Neurotic Need for Perfection and Unassailability
These individuals constantly strive for complete infallibility. A common feature of this neurotic need is searching for personal flaws in order to quickly change or cover up these perceived imperfections.